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Best sources of calcium



Bok choy (cooked) – 330 mg

Kale – 180mg

Spinach (cooked) – 250 mg

Collard greens (cooked) – 260 mg

Mustard greens (cooked) – 100 mg

Turnip greens (cooked) – 200 mg

Swiss chard (cooked) – 100 mg

Seaweed (Wakame) – 120mg

Okra – 130 mg

Broccoli – 45 mg

Artichoke – 55 mg

Celery – 40 mg

Leeks – 55 mg


Almonds (1/4 cup) – 95 mg

Brazil nuts (1/4 cup) – 55 mg

Hazelnuts (1/4 cup) – 55 mg

Fruit (per cup)

Figs (dried) – 300 mg

Apricots (dried) – 75mg

Kiwi – 60mg

Rhubarb (cooked) – 350 mg

Orange – 70 mg

Prunes – 75 mg

Blackberries – 40 mg

dairyfWhy isn’t milk on this list? Because humans shouldn’t drink it beyond infancy. It has been linked to breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, heartburn, hormone problems, it pulls calcium(ironic, right?) and water from your body,  etc. Most humans stop producing lactase (needed to digest milk) by the age of 12-24 months, the rest stop producing lactase by the age of 5 or so. If someone beyond this age is still producing lactase and consuming milk with no issues, it’s highly likely that they have a specific European gene mutation. Cow’s milk is full of pus, antibiotics, hormones, etc…







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Top Cancer Killers


Loma Linda University  reported that people who ate beans at least three times a week had a 33% reduced risk of colon polyps (which often lead to colon cancer).

Researchers at Colorado State University reported on the anticancer abilities of beans: white kidney beans have greater impact on cancer cells than navy beans, and that more colorful beans have milder effects. Foods that were found to be especially protective against head and neck cancers, which include cancer of the mouth, throat, and larynxthese cancers included beans, carrots, and tomatoes, among others.

1305104161078Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, and kale, among others, contain several compounds shown to fight cancer.

Carrots are an excellent source of beta-carotene, a potent antioxidant that has been associated with a reduced risk of various cancers, including prostate, mouth, throat, colon, stomach, and bladder. This does not include beta-carotene supplements – to receive the benefits, carrots must be eaten.


In one laboratory study, capsaicin slowed the growth of prostate cancer cells and prompted apoptosis (cell suicide), while a subsequent study found similar results regarding apoptosis and prostate cancer cells. Capsaicin also fights stomach cancer.

Garlic contains allium compounds that enhance the activity of immune system cells designed to fight cancer – they block carcinogens from getting into cells and also slow the development of tumors.

Mushrooms, including shiitake, reishi, coriolus versicolor, and maitake, have demonstrated cancer-fighting properties. The anticancer abilities are attributed to polysaccharides, including beta glucan, which enhance the immune system and strengthen it against cancer. Mushrooms also contain complex protein/sugar molecules called lectin, which have an ability to prevent cancer cells from multiplying. Another compound in mushrooms is ergosterol peroxide, which can inhibit the growth or prostate cancer cells and prompt apoptosis, according to a study reported in Chemico Biological Interactions. The yamabushitake mushroom has demonstrated potential against human leukemia.

Raspberries have been shown to decrease the number of esophageal tumors. In subsequent studies, black raspberry extracts inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells.

A recent review in Current Medicinal Chemistry reports on the impact of lycopene on cancer in general, and how its potent antioxidant properties help it prevent cell damage and inhibit cell growth. In addition, some case-control studies have shown that greater consumption of tomatoes and lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer.

The spice turmeric: Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, appears to involve a blend of anti-carcinogenic, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. One study showed  it inhibited the growth of both human and animal prostate cancer cell lines.

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Coconut Facts


It has been used for thousands of years in ancient India as a healing fruit.

It takes around 9 months for a coconut to filter all of the water that it contains. This makes the water completely pure & sterile, which is why it can be used for blood transfusions.

It has the highest concentration of electrolytes of anything found in nature.

Younger coconuts contain the purest unsaturated fats and are better than mature coconuts.

It boots the immune system, boosts metabolism, and improves thyroud function.

It makes a great topical oil(use a TINY bit – it goes a long way!) that can help to naturally rid the skin of dangerous toxins. It also gives the skin the perfect mix of hydration and antioxidants that it needs to stay healthy, smooth and younger-looking longer.

Eight ounces of coconut water has 46 calories, 9 grams of carbohydrates, 250 mg of sodium, 200-500 mg of potassium, 60 mg of magnesium, 45 mg of phosphorus, and 2 grams of protein. The electrolyte content is more than double that of traditional sports drinks with about half of the carbohydrates. (Potassium is an essential macromineral in human nutrition; it is the major cation (positive ion) inside cells, and it is important in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.)

According to researchers, individuals with high blood pressure usually have low potassium levels. Therefore, drinking coconut water on a regular basis can be quite effective at regulating blood pressure.

Coconut milk (made from the meat of the coconut) has 500-600 calories, and coconut water(liquid inside) contains about 50 calories.

A few studies have shown coconut water to have cytokinins which are beneficial for anti-aging, anti-carcinogenic and anti-thrombotic effects. The American Institute for Cancer Research says that some of the compounds in coconut water, such as selenium, have antioxidant properties and fight cancer in the lab(many common fruits and vegetables are packed with these compounds). Several animal studies suggest coconut water can lower cholesterol and blood pressure, but this research is too preliminary to make any claims  yet.

An article with numerous facts & info: http://www.organicfacts.net/organic-oils/organic-coconut-oil/health-benefits-of-coconut-oil.html

Another article with information & factoids: http://www.thepaleosecret.com/2012/07/19/top-10-health-benefits-of-coconut-oil/
cco orgmilk



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Foods that fight cancer


Garlic – Garlic belongs to the family of vegetables called Allium, which includes onions, scallions, leeks and chives. Laboratory research has shown that one garlic component, called diallyl disulfide, exerts potent preventive effects against cancers of the skin, colon and lung. Recently, this compound proved able to kill leukemia cells in the laboratory. A compound derived from garlic called ajoene has displayed similar activity. Garlic protects against stomach cancer and decreases one’s chances of developing colorectal cancer. The higher the exposure to the food = the greatest decrease in risk. In laboratory studies, components of garlic have shown the ability to slow or stop the growth of tumors in prostate, bladder, colon and stomach tissue.


Peanuts, Grapes, & Mulberry Fruit – They all contain resveratrol, a type of natural phytochemical that belongs to a much larger group of phytochemicals called polyphenols. Laboratory research points to resveratrol’s ability to slow the growth of cancer cells and inhibit the formation of tumors in lymph, liver, stomach and breast cells. Resveratrol has also triggered the death of leukemic and colon cancer tumors. In one series of studies, resveratrol blocked the development of skin, breast and leukemia cancers at all three stages of the disease (initiation, promotion and progression).


Tomatoes  – Their red hue comes chiefly from a phytochemical called lycopene. Reasearch has  found substantial and convincing evidence that foods containing lycopene probably protect against prostate cancer. Consumption of tomato compounds has been linked to large decreases in prostate cancer risk. Moreover, there is evidence that this cancer-fighting potential is increased if tomatoes are consumed in a processed form that allows these natural compounds to be released and more easily absorbed, such as tomato sauce, tomato paste or tomato juice. In the laboratory, tomato components have stopped the proliferation of several other cancer cells types, including breast, lung, and endometrial.


Ginger – Ginger causes cancer cell apoptosis(apoptosis is when cancer cells “commit suicide”). The anti-inflammatory properties of ginger prevent precancerous tumors from creating the perfect breeding ground and climate for growth. Ginger also causes autophagy, meaning that ginger tricks the cancerous cells into eating themselves. Researchers have found that ginger exhibited a highly prized anti-cancer trait known as selective cytotoxicity: it inhibited the reproduction of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells largely unaffected. No conventional cancer treatment on the market exhibits this property.


Citrus Fruits – Citric acid and flavonoids in citrus fruits contributes to their antioxidant & anti-cancer properties. Citrus fruit consumption increases your protection from oral cancer,  and cancers of the digestive and upper respiratory tract. A 2010 study showed that citric acid alone does not protect against cancer – it works best when the fruit is consumed because the flavonoid/citric acid combination is what works and protects against cancers. Limes & lemons have the highest concentration of citric acid – as much as 8% of their dry weight. Citrus foods: limes, lemons, grapefruit, oranges, berries, pineapples, tamarind, tomatoes, & cherries. Please note: If you are taking medication, please consult your doctor before increasing your citric acid consumption – it can interfere with absorption and effectiveness. Also, consuming too much citric acid can have some side effects such as PH balance disturbance, diarrhea, nausea, etc.





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Artificial Food Coloring – Toxic to humans


BLUE1 Used in beverages, candy, & baked goods. Testing showed a small cancer risk, might affect neurons, and also causes occasional allergic reactions.

BLUE 2 Used in pet food, beverages, & candy. Studies found some evidence that Blue 2 causes brain cancer in  rats.

GREEN 3 Used in candy& beverages. A study gave hints of bladder and testes tumors in male rats. Fortunately, this possibly carcinogenic dye is not widely used.

ORANGE B Used in sausage. Approved for use only in sausage casings, high doses of this dye are harmful to the liver and bile duct. Orange B has not been used for many years.

RED 3 Used in candy & baked goods. There is  evidence that this dye caused thyroid tumors in rats. FDA’s recommendation that the dye be banned was overruled by pressure from the cherry industry and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It is used in foods ranging from cake icing to fruit roll-ups to chewing gum.

RED 40 Used in soda pop, candy, gelatin desserts, pastries, pet food, and sausage. The most widely used food dye. Red 40 can cause allergy-like reactions.

YELLOW 5 Used in gelatin dessert, candy, pet food, and baked goods. The second-most-widely used coloring causes allergy-like hypersensitivity reactions and triggers hyperactivity in some children. It may be contaminated with such cancer-causing substances as benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl (or chemicals that the body converts to those substances).

YELLOW 6 Used in beverages, candy, & baked goods. Tests indicated that this dye, the third-most-widely-used, causes tumors of the adrenal gland and kidney. Yellow 6 may cause occasional, but sometimes-severe, hypersensitivity reactions.

Food additives:

ANNATTO Natural coloring used for butter, cheese, & other foods. Annatto is a widely used food coloring obtained from the seeds of a tropical shrub. Its hue is yellow to orange. Unfortunately, natural does not always mean perfectly safe. Annatto causes hives in some people. In fact, allergic reactions to annatto appear to be more common than reactions to commonly used synthetic food dyes.

ASPARTAME Artificial sweetener used in diet foods, including soft drinks, drink mixes, gelatin desserts, low-calorie frozen desserts, &packets. Studies have shown that it may cause cancer, neurological problems,  dizziness, brain tumors, lymphomas, leukemias, kidney tumors, headaches, mammary (breast) cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. It is possible that the cause of the problems might be the methanol released when aspartame breaks down in the body(or the product’s container). More research is needed.

BROMINATED VEGETABLE OIL (BVO) Used as an emulsifier, clouding agent in soft drinks & sports drinks. zzeating BVO leaves residues in body fat and the fat in brain, liver, and other organs. One study shows that it can cause heart lesions, fatty changes in the liver, impaired growth, and impared behavioral development. Doctors have identified bromine toxicity in people who drink large amounts of soda. BVO should not be used (it is not permitted in Europe).

BUTYLATED HYDROXYANISOLE (BHA) Used in cereals, chewing gum, potato chips, & vegetable oil. Some studies indicate that it can cause cancer. BHA could be left out or easily replaced with Vitamin E. There is no reason to use/consume BHA.

CARAMEL COLORING Used incolas, baked goods, pre-cooked meats, soy sauce, Worcestershire sauce, chocolate-flavored products, & beer. Causes cancer.

GINKGO Used in beverages and other consumables. It interferes with blood clotting. Just this year, 2013, the U.S. Government’s National Toxicology Program found clear evidence that ginkgo caused liver cancer in male and female mice and caused thyroid cancer in rats.

PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL, HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OIL (Trans fat) Used in fat, oil, shortening, stick margarine, crackers, fried restaurant foods, baked goods, icing, & microwave popcorn. Harvard School of Public Health researchers estimate that it causes about 50,000 premature heart attack deaths annually, making partially hydrogenated oil one of the most harmful ingredients in the food supply.

POTASSIUM BROMATE Used as a flour improver in white flour, bread and rolls. Bromate causes cancer in animals. Bromate has been banned virtually worldwide except in Japan and the United States. The Center for Science in the Public Interest petitioned the FDA to ban bromate.

PROPYL GALLATE Used in vegetable oil, meat products, potato sticks, chicken soup base, & chewing gum. May cause cancer.

SODIUM NITRITE/NITRATE A preservative, coloring, flavoring used in bacon, ham, frankfurters, luncheon meats, smoked fish, and corned beef. Can lead to the formation of small amounts of potent cancer-causing chemicals. Has been linked with various types of cancer. Some products may not contain added sodium nitrite, but they are sometimes are made with celery powder or celery juice which are naturally high in nitrite.


Starving Cancer: Ketogenic Diet

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“There is a cancer treatment that is free, has virtually no side effects, and can be used in conjunction with other cancer treatments. It involves cutting out carbohydrates, beginning with the worst carb of all – sugar.

Starving Bad Cells —  stop eating carbohydrates, which turn into glucose inside your body. Cancer cells love glucose and need it so badly, that if you stop giving it to them, they die.

The Ketogenic Diet — All cells, including cancer cells, are fueled by glucose. But if you deprive them of glucose, they switch to the alternate fuel, ketone bodies. Except cancer cells. A defect prevents them from making the switch to using ketone bodies as fuel and therefore, cancer cells can only survive on glucose. All other cells can use either glucose or ketone bodies.

…It’s clean eating. Just very clean eating, none of the sugars, the salts, the trash food… Natural proteins are ones that are in their original form. On the other hand, “processed” meats, like cold cuts and hot dogs, are off-limits because often carbohydrates have been added to them.”

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Read the entire article HERE

More helpful info & links:


Ketogenic diet does not negatively affect strength performance in elite gymnasts in study (they actually had a decrease in weight & body fat and a tiny increase in muscle mass) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22835211

A Ketogenic Diet for Cancer by the Caveman Dr http://www.cavemandoctor.com/2013/01/01/an-introduction-a-ketogenic-diet-for-cancer/

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Say NO to SOY! Disruptive to female reproductive functions, lowers testosterone in males, effects unborn babies….


Soy, Isoflavones, Soybean, Tofu = Genistein Isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, are found in a number of plants including lupin, fava beans, soybeans, kudzu, and psoralea being the primary food source, also in the medicinal plants, Flemingia vestita and F. macrophylla, and coffee. Hundreds of studies say that more investigation is needed and cite numerous serious issues directly related to Soy/Genistein:

Gee JM and others. Increased induction of aberrant crypt foci(clusters of abnormal tube-like glands in the lining of the colon and rectum) by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats fed diets containing purified genistein or genistein-rich soya proteinCarcinogenesis 2000 Dec;21(12):2255-9. Genistein promotes induction of aberrant crypt foci by an as yet unidentified mechanism when fed immediately before treatment with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

Cassanova N and others. Comparative effects of neonatal exposure of male rats to potent and weak (environmental) estrogens on spermatogenesis at puberty and the relationship to adult testis size and fertility: evidence for stimulatory effects of low estrogen levels. Endocrinology 2000 Oct;141(10):3898-907. Administration of genistein to rats significantly retarded most measures of pubertal spermatogenesis. Animals fed a soy-free diet had significantly larger testes than controls fed a soy-containing diet. “It is concluded that. . . the presence or absence of soy or genistein in the diet has significant short-term (pubertal spermatogenesis) and long-term (body weight, testis size, FSH levels and possibly mating) effects on males.”

Watanabe S and others. Effects of isoflavone supplement on healthy women. Biofactors 2000;12(1-4):233-41. After one month of taking 20 mg or 40 mg isoflavones daily, 60% of the young women had prolonged menstruation, 20% had shortened menstruation, 17% remained unchanged and 3% became irregular. Other hormonal changes “suggest that isoflavones influence not only estrogen receptor-related functions but the hypothalamo-hypophysis-gonadal axis(hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonad).”

Yang J and others. Influence of perinatal genistein exposure on the development of MNU-induced mammary carcinoma in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cancer Lett 2000 Feb 28;149(1-2):171-9. “. . . perinatal genistein is an endocrine disrupter and increases the multiplicity of MNU-induced mammary carcinoma in rats.”

Salti GI and others. Genistein induces apoptosis(cell death) and topoisomerase II-mediated DNA breakage(DNA damage) in coloncancer cells. Eur J Cancer 2000 Apr;36(6):796-802. DNA breakage in colon cancer cells occurred within 1 hour of treatment with genistein.

Lephard ED and others. Phytoestrogens decrease brain calcium-binding proteins but do not alter hypothalamic androgen metabolizing enzymes in adult male rats. Brain Res 2000 Mar 17;859(1):123-31. Animals fed diets containing phytoestrogens for 5 weeks had elevated levels of phytoestrogens in the brain and a decrease of brain calcium-binding proteins. Calcium-binding proteins are associated with protection against neurodegenerative diseases.

Strick R and others. Dietary bioflavonoids induce cleavage in the MLL gene and may contribute to infant leukemiaProc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000 Apr 25;97(9):4790-5. Researchers found that flavonoids, especially genistein, can cross the placenta and induce cell changes that lead to infant leukemia.

Chang HS and Doerge DR. Dietary genistein inactivates rat thyroid peroxidase(thyroid/iodine) in vivo without an apparent hypothyroid effect. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2000 Nov 1;168(3):244-52. The activity of thyroid peroxidase activity in soy-fed rats was reduced by up to 80% compared to those on a soy-free diet. As thyroid hormone levels and thyroid weights were no different between treated and untreated groups, the researchers concluded that “the remaining enzymatic activity is sufficient to maintain thyroid homeostasis in the absence of additional perturbations.” However, it is difficult or impossible to measure some of the more subtle manifestations of hypothyroidism in rats.

Gee JM and others. Increased induction of aberrant crypt foci by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats fed diet containing purified genistein or genistein-rich soya protein. Carcinogenesis 2000;21:2255-2259. Rats fed the isoflavone genistein exhibited pathological changes in the colon.

Ikeda T and others. Dramatic synergism between excess soybean intake and iodine deficiency on the development of rat thyroid hyperplasia. Carcinogenesis 2000 Apr;21(4):707-13. Excess soybean intake with iodine deficiency caused abnormal growth of the thyroid gland.


Newbold RR and others. Uterine adenocarcinoma in mice treated neonatally with genistein. Cancer Res 2001 Jun 1;61(11):4325-8. Genistein in soy was found to be more carcinogenic than DES, especially during “critical periods of differentiation.. . . the use of soy-based infant formulas in the absence of medical necessity and the marketing of soy products designed to appeal to children should be closely examined.”


de Lemos ML. Effects of soy phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein on breast cancer growth. Ann Pharmacother 2001 Sep;35(9):118-21. “Genistein and daidzein may stimulate existing breast tumor growth and antagonize the effects of tamoxifen. Women with current or past breast cancer should be aware of the risks of potential tumor growth when taking soy products.”

Ju YH and others. Physiological concentrations of dietary genistein dose-dependently stimulate growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) tumors implanted in athymic nude mice. J Nutr 2001 Nov;131(11):2957-62. Genistein stimulated breast tumor growth and cell proliferation in mice in a dose-responsive manner.


Nagao T and others. Reproductive effects in male and female rats of neonatal exposure to genistein. Reprod Toxicol 2001 Jul-Aug;15(4):399-411. Feeding of genistein to newborn rats resulted in lower body weight in male and female rats, estrous cycle irregularities and lowered fertility in female rats. Neonatal exposure to genistein caused dysfunction of postpubertal reproduction performance as well as abnormal development of gonads in female but not in male rats.


Allred CD and others. Dietary genistin stimulates growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors similar to that observed with genistein. Carcinogenesis 2001 Oct;22(10):1667-73. Genistin, the glycoside form of genistein, is converted to genistein by human saliva. The glycoside genistin, like the aglycone genistein, can stimulate estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell growth in vivo. Removal of genistin or genistein from the diet caused tumors to regress.


Whitehead SA and others. Acute and chronic effects of genistein, tyrphostin and lavendustin A on steroid synthesis in luteinized human granulosa cells. Hum Reprod 2002 Mar;17(3):589-94. Genistein directly inhibits steroid-production enzymes.


Klein SL and others. Early exposure to genistein exerts long-lasting effects on the endocrine and immune systems in rats. Mol Med 2002 Nov;8(11):742-9. Pregnant female rats were exposed to no, low (5 mg/kg diet) or high (300 mg/kg diet) genistein diets throughout gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring exposed to genistein perinatally were either switched to the genistein-free diet or remained on the genistein-dosed diets. At 70 days of age, immune organ masses, lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokine concentrations and testosterone concentrations were assessed in male offspring. Relative thymus masses were greater among males expose d to the high genistein diet than among males exposed to no genistein and certain markers of immune system function were also lower. Testosterone concentrations were lower among genistein-exposed than genistein-free males. These data illustrate that exposure to genistein during pregnancy and lactation exerts long-lasting effects on the endocrine and immune systems in adulthood. Whether exposure to phytoestrogens during early development affects responses to infectious or autoimmune diseases, as well ascancers, later in life requires investigation.


Doerge DR and DM Sheehan. Goitrogenic and estrogenic activity of soy isoflavones. Environ Health Perspect 2002 Jun;110 suppl 3:349-53. “Soy is known to produce estrogenic isoflavones. Here, we briefly review the evidence for binding of isoflavones to the estrogen receptor, in vivo estrogenicity and developmental toxicity, and estrogen developmental carcinogenesis in rats. Genistein, the major soy isoflavone, also has a frank estrogenic effect in women. We then focus on evidence from animal and human studies suggesting a link between soy consumption and goiter, an activity independent of estrogenicity. Iodine deficiency greatly increases soy antithyroid effects, whereas iodine supplementation is protective. . . . Although safety testing of natural products, including soy products, is not required, the possibility that widely consumed soy products may cause harm in the human population via either or both estrogenic and goitrogenic activities is of concern.”
Ju YH and others. Dietary genistein negates the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells implanted in athymic mice. Cancer Res 2002 May 1;62(9):2474-7. Dietary genistein negated or overwhelmed the inhibitor effect of tamoxifen on tumor growth in ovariectomized and athymic mice. “Therefore, caution is warranted for postmenopausal women consuming dietary genistein while on TAM therapy for E-responsive breast cancer.”
Guo TL and others. Genistein modulates splenic natural killer cell activity, antibody-forming cell response and phenotypic marker expression in F(0) and F(1) generations of Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002 Jun 15;181(3):219-27. Genistein caused a decrease in the percentage of helper T cells and an increase in the relative weights of spleen and thymus in rats.


Kumar NB and others. The specific role of isoflavones on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women.Cancer 2002 Feb 15;94(4):1166-74. Sixty eight women consuming 40 mg soy isoflavones daily for 12 weeks had changes in steroid hormones and increased cycle length.


Chiang, CE and others. Genistein Inhibits the Inward Rectifying Potassium Current in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes. J Biomed Sci 2002;9:321-326. Dietary isoflavones genistein dose-dependently and reversibly inhibit the inward rectifying K+ (potassium) current in guinea pigs ventricular myocytes, suggesting the potential for soy isoflavones to cause heart arrhythmias.


Lephard ED and others. Neurobehavioral effects of dietary soy phytoestrogens. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2002 Jan-Feb;24(1):5-16. Male mice fed diets rich in phytoestrogens had lower levels of maze performance than male mice fed diets free of phytoestrogens. (Opposite results were observed in female mice.) The results indicate that consumption of dietary phytoestrogens resulting in very high plasma isoflavone levels (in many cases over a relatively short interval of consumption in adulthood) can significantly alter sexually dimorphic brain regions, anxiety, learning and memory.
Newbold R and others. Increased uterine cancer seen in mice injected with genistein, a soy estrogen, as newborns. Cancer Research 2002 Jun 1;61(11):4325-8. Infant mice given genistein developed cancer of the uterus later in life. “The data suggest that genistein is carcinogenic if exposure occurs during critical periods in a young animal’s development.


Tsutsui T and others. Cell-Transforming Activity And Mutagenicity of 5 Phytoestrogens In Cultured Mammalian Cells. Int J  Cancer 2003 105, 312-320. Phytoestrogens, such as Genistein and Dadzein, are responsible for the mutation of genes in mammals.

Unfer V and others. Endometrial effects of long-term treatment with phytoestrogens randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril 2004 Jul;82(1):145-8. Women treated with soy phytoestrogens for 5 years were more likely to suffer from endometrial hyperplasia than those treated with a placebo.
Grace P and others. Phytoestrogen concentrations in serum and spot urine as biomarkers for dietary phytoestrogen intake and their relation to breast cancer risk in European prospective investigation of cancerand nutrition-norfolk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 May;13(5):698-708. Women who had high concentration of Phystoestrogens were more likely to be at risk for breast cancer.

Chen AC and others. Genistein Inhibits Intestinal Cell Proliferation in Piglets. Pediatric Research 2005, Vol. 57, No. 2, 192-200. Three groups of piglets were fed either sow milk replacer, sow milk replacer with small amounts of genistein and soy milk replacer with large amounts of genistein. The study found that those piglets who had consumed the large and small amounts of genistein had suffered from “reduced enterocyte proliferation and migration.”
Note: Enterocytes are cells which make up most of the inner surface of the intestine.

Wood, C and others. Adrenocorticol Effects of Oral Estrogens and Soy Isoflavones in Female Monkeys. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2005, Vol. 89 No. 5, 2319-2325. Three groups of female monkeys were fed either isoflavone depleted soy protein, soy protein with isoflavones or isoflavone depleted soy protein with conjugated equine estrogens, for 36 months. The group of monkeys fed the soy protein with isoflavones “had significantly lower adrenal weight… These findings suggest that long term estrogen treatment may contribute to an androgen-deficient and hypercortisolemic state.”

Doerge D and others. Lactational transfer of the soy isoflavone genistein, in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming dietary genistein. Reprod Toxicol 2006 Apr;21(3):307-12. The study shows that small amounts of genistein are present in the milk of mothers who consumed the substance.

Etcheverry P and others. Effect of Beef and Soy Proteins on the Absorption of Non-Heme Iron and Inorganic Zinc in Children. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Feb;25(1):34-40. Children who consumed beef meal had a “significantly greater” ability to absorb zinc and iron than those who consumed soy meal.
Glover A and others. Acute exposure of adult male rats to dietary phytoestrogens reduces fecundity and alters epididymal steroid hormone receptor expression. Journal of Endocrinology (2006) 189, 565-573. “Adult males, fed a high phytoestrogen diet for 3 days, demonstrated significantly reduced fecundity… lipid peroxidation of epididymal sperm was significantly increased in animals fed a high phytoestrogen diet for 3 days. Disruption of the steroid regulation of the epididymis by phytoestrogens may alter its function, resulting in decreased quality of sperm, and thereby reducing fecundity.”
Milerova J and others. Actual levels of soy phytoestrogens in children correlate with thyroid laboratory parameters. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44(2):171-4. Small differences in the amount of soy phytoestrogen consumed had moderately varying negative effects on the function of the thyroid gland.

Jefferson W and others. Disruption of the female reproductive system by the phytoestrogen genistein.Reproductive Toxicology (2007) 23( 3), 308-16. Different amounts of Genistein fed to rats had adverse effect on the ovaries and estrogen cycle. Twenty five milligrams per kilogram caused lessened fertility and complete infertility was seen at fifty milligrams per kilogram. The offspring of females who consumed twenty five milligrams per kilogram of genistein were shown to have a larger number of multi-oocyte follicles(cysts), than those whose mothers had not, showing us that the effects of genistein can be carried for multiple generations. “Thus neonatal treatment with genistein at environmentally relevant doses caused adverse consequences on reproduction in adulthood.”

Rachon D and others. Dietary daidzein and puerarin do not affect pituitary LH expression but exert uterotropic effects in ovariectomized rats. Maturitas 2007 Jun 20;57(2):161-70. “High dose consumption of commercially available preparations containing daidzein or puerarin may expose women with an intact uterus to the risk of endometrial hyperplasia.”
Goodin S and others. Clinical and biological activity of soy protein powder supplementation in healthy male volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:829–33. Twelve men 18 years or older were fed 56 grams of pure soy per day for 28 days. Over the 28 days the men experienced a 19% drop in serum testosterone.

Chavarro J and others. Soy food and isoflavone intake in relation to semen quality parameters among men from an infertility clinic. Human Reproduction 2008, Vol. 23. No. 10, 2584-90. Those men who consumed considerable amounts of soy food had lower sperm concentration. These findings stayed consistent with “age, abstinence time, body mass index, caffeine and alcohol intake and smoking.”

Eustache F and others. Chronic dietary exposure to a low-dose mixture of genistein and vinclozolin modifies the reproductive axis, testis transcriptome, and fertility. Environmental Health Perspec 2009 Aug;117(8):1272-9. “Chronic exposure to a mixture of a dose of phytoestrogen equivalent to that in the human diet and a low dose… of a common anti-androgenic food contaminant may seriously affect the male reproductive tract and fertility.”

Jefferson W and others. Oral exposure to genistin, the glycosylated form of genistein, during neonatal life adversely affects the female reproductive system. Environmental Health Perspective 2009 Dec;117(12):1883-9. When female newborns are exposed genistin, (the glycosylated form of genistein), it can cause harm to the reproductive system. This harm took the form of “delayed vaginal opening… abnormal estrous cycles, decreased fertility, and delayed parturition.”
Pastuszewska B and others. Nutritional value and physiological effects of soya-free diets fed to rats during growth and reproduction. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2008 Feb;92(1):63-74. The groups of rats fed egg and milk protein, instead of soy, showed superior reproductive performance.

Sosic-Jurjevic, B and others. Suppressive effects of genistein and daidzein on pituitary-thyroid axis in orchidectomized middle-aged rats. Experimental Biology and Medicine 2010 May;235(5):590-8. Two groups of middle-aged rats were fed 10 milligrams per kilo of either Dazein or Genistein for three weeks and a third group was fed regular feed. “This study provides…direct evidence that (Genistein and Dadzein) can induce microfollicular changes in the thyroid tissue and reduce the level of thyroid hormones…”

Yu C and others. Maternal exposure to daidzain alters behavior and oestrogen receptor alpha expression in adult female offspring. Behavioral Pharmacology May 2010. “Maternal exposure to daidzein has a masculinisation effect on memory and social behavior.”

Ward H and others. Breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation intoCancer and Nutrition-Norfolk in relation to phytoestrogen intake derived from an improved database. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Feb;91(2):440-8. “Dietary phytoestrogens may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer among women and prostate cancer among men.”

Cimafranca M and others. Acute and chronic effects of oral genistein administration in neonatal mice. Biology of Reproduction 2010 Jul;83(1):114-21. This study was conducted in order “to develop a mouse model that more closely mimics the oral genistein exposure and total serum genistein concentrations observed in soy formula-fed infants.” Baby mice were fed soy formula until the fifth day after birth. The results showed that the “genistein treatment caused increased relative uterine weight and down-regulation of progesterone receptor in uterine epithelia. Estrogenic effects of genistein were also seen in the neonatal ovary and thymus, which had an increase in the incidence of multioocyte follicles (cysts) and a decrease in thymic weight relative to body weight, respectively. The increased incidence of MOFs persisted into adulthood for neonatally treated genistein females, and estrous cycle abnormalities were seen at 6 mo of age.”

Cedarroth C and others. Potential detrimental effects of a phytoestrogen-rich diet on male fertility in mice.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2010 Jun 10;321(2):152-60. Two groups of male mice were fed diets either containing large amounts of soy or no soy at all. The results showed “that long-term exposure to dietary soy and phytoestrogens may affect male reproductive function resulting in a small decrease in sperm count and fertility.”

Balkrishnan B and others. Transplacental Transfer and Biotransformation of Genistein in the human placenta.Placenta 2010 June;31(6):506-511. Genistein has the ability to come through the placenta of healthy human fetuses.

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